Fractured National Identity State-Based Loyalties

Fractured National Identity State-Based Loyalties

In 1901, Australia was formed. It was both national pragmatic and sentimental. Federal government coordination was required to coordinate policy issues in areas such as immigration, trade, and defense. The growing nationalist sentiment that people from different colonies were shaped by the opportunities and challenges of the great southern land was just as important. They were Australians as well as Tasmanians and Queenslanders, Victorians, and so forth.

Nationalism is a modernizing project that creates identities and moral communities that transcend parochial and regional boundaries. The colonial identities of Australia’s European settlers in the 19th century were not as strong as those of the rest of the world. However, they did exist.

Although the young men of Australian Natives’ Association may have considered themselves to be Australians at heart, they continued to identify as colonists after federation. This was due to their roots in six colonies’ histories, economies, and social worlds. Alfred Deakin was the second prime minister of Australia, and he would repeatedly tell the people that they should think of themselves first as Australians and approach all political issues from a national perspective.

Interesting Historical National

It is interesting historical to ask when Australians National identities transcended their state-based identities. It was the second world war, I believe. Before the war, decisions and policies made by state governments had a greater impact on people’s daily lives than those of federal government. All state responsibilities included health, education, transport law and order, law and administration, local government, roads and sewerage, power, and transportation. The federal income tax was not yet in effect and the Commonwealth welfare responsibilities are limited.

The federal government took over the primacy when Australia was under threat from Japan. The Commonwealth was responsible for defense and also had the power to re-allocate resources including labour to support the war effort. It could also tax people’s incomes.

The COVID pandemic, which saw the closing of state borders, and the different experiences of states and territories raises the question of whether the state-based identity is stronger today than it was 20 years ago. Based on historical observations and not hard quantitative data, I would suggest three reasons why this may be so.

First, federation was able to preserve many of the colonies’ political cultures. Western Australia has seen the survival of separatist sentiments. Queensland is less dominated than other states by its capital, but still has strong rural populism.

Both Sydney and Melbourne still have their own political differences. James Jupp, a political scientist from Sydney, compares Melbourne’s reformist, Protestant, middle class political culture with Sydney’s hard-nosed materialism in The Sydney Melbourne Book. Melbourne was idealistic, patrician and internationalist, while Sydney was proletarian and masculinist, and Sydney was cynical.

Liberal Party

This made Victoria the home of the Liberal Party for much of the 20th Century, up until Gough Whitlam, who lured a portion of the moral middle-class to the social democratic Labor Party in the early 1970s.

Victoria’s political culture remains more progressive than New South Wales. But it now leans towards Labor and Greens instead of the Liberals. The Liberals’ center of gravity has moved to Sydney, which is more proletarian, and less intellectual.

A second reason why state-based identities may be growing is the different impact of Neoliberalism on both our two levels. Australia enjoyed three decades of government-led nation building after the Second World War. These included the postwar migration and Snowy Mountains programs. As well as the development of manufacturing and the expansion and maintenance of universities and scientific capabilities. This effort culminated with the Whitlam government’s cultural nationalism.

The onset of stagflation, which began in the mid-1970s, halted this nation-building momentum. It eventually slowed down as governments turned to neoliberal solutions to restore economic growth.

Bombshell Day Questions Must Be Asked About Integrity

Bombshell Day Questions Must Be Asked About Integrity

A few days into the ongoing Independent Integrity Commission Against Corruption proceedings in NSW, it seems that two former premiers of NSW and Cabinet colleagues Gladys Berejiklian (now Mike Baird) may have markedly differing views on integrity in public office.

Baird, however, is not charge with any wrongdoing. He told the hearing that he was incredulous when he learned about the relationship between Berejiklian, former MP Daryl Maguire and that he believed she should have disclosed it.

Following the ICAC hearings questions have been raise about the system that supports and may enable perceived acts of integrity.

A moment is unfolding that will challenge many assumptions about politics, beyond NSW. In Australian politics, integrity has become a commodity. It reflects the views of what constitutes good government. It is the foundation of faith in political systems. Democracies require us to have faith in the integrity of political structures, elections and parliamentarians.

This is something that even the most experienced political actors are aware of. They know this because they keep returning to the question of integrity in both the attack bluster and the defense stoic. In her recent resignation speech, Berejiklian said exactly that. She stated. My record will show that I have always performed my duties with integrity to the benefit of the people in NSW.

Historical Record Integrity

This is exactly the proposition ICAC tests. The historical record will be significantly shape by the ICAC’s investigation into Berejiklian’s conduct that constitute or involved a breach in public trust.

It has been again question whether the integrity of the political process behind the NSW deployment of public moneys was being maintain. This is not the first time this has happened. In fact, if you look back at recent history, there may have been hints of structural vulnerability.

Berejiklian said, It is not illegal. This was a strange response. It was an open admission that electoral imperatives can influence the stewardship public resources. She was correct, however.

According to the NSW Ministerial Code of Conduct the integrity of the system will not be compromised if ministers make decisions which might lead to the expectation of the manner in which a specific matter is handled will enhance a person or party’s popularity standing.

The code warns that ministers have a responsibility to manage conflicts of interest in a way that maintains both the appearance and the factual integrity of the Ministerial. This is the problem here.

The ICAC is currently investigating whether McGuire, the former premier who denies wrongdoing, failed to declare a conflict of interest regarding her relationship to McGuire in relation the decision on allocation of public funds for specific projects in Wagga Wagga’s electorate.

Subject Were Sharp

The comments made by Baird Berejiklian’s predecessor at ICAC on this subject were sharp. His comment that Maguire’s relationship to her should have disclose, is a key point in the matter.

According to Baird, the integrity of the public funding deployment depends on proper public disclosure. It is becoming more apparent how different approaches to this proposition being treat, both under the code and politically. What about the public service?

Public servants advise ministers and make sure public money spent properly. The Government Sector Employment Act 2013 lists four core values: integrity, trust and service, as well as accountability. The act also includes 18 principles that guide. How these values should apply to those working in the public sector and other government sectors. The act requires that public servants make decisions that ensure fair service provision.

Importantly, the act states that public servants must be fiscally. Accountable and should focus on efficient and effective use of resources.

Ministers are required to take care to protect public servants against compromise. The ministerial code states that ministers have a responsibility to ensure others, including public servants. Do not get into a position where they would be forced to violate the law or their ethical obligations.

Place In Politics Girls Learn Early Interest

Place In Politics Girls Learn Early Interest

Women in the United States express less interest and are more likely to run for office than men. These disparities threaten democracy by distorting representation. Women account for 26.7% of Congress members and 31% of state legislators. Despite being 50.8% of the population, they make up only half of the country’s population.

These imbalances threaten the core values of representational democracy, such as fairness and inclusion. They lower the quality of political policies. Similar to the above, although women make up the majority in college, they are less likely to run for or win student government positions.

These gaps were studied extensively by our research team, based on research that suggests that the lack of representation is due to women being less interested in politics and less likely than men to run for office. Ready to Run and Emerge America address this issue by training women to run in public office and raising funds for them. We wondered, hat if political ambition and political interest start much earlier?

Drawings Can Help You Tell A Interest Story

Our goal was to find out if there are gender gaps in interest as early as elementary school. We interviewed more than 1,600 children from grades 1 through 6

Interviewing children about politics can be difficult. It is difficult to interview young children about politics. Many are unfamiliar with terms such as Congress and Supreme Court. So, we created the Draw A Politic Leader prompt.

We were inspire by the Draw a Scientist task, which focuses on research on gender gaps within STEM science technology engineering and math and asked children to draw a picture of a political leader. Asked the children to draw a picture of a leader and describe their characteristics.

We also asked the children about their interests in politics, their interest in various careers, and whether they would like to be elect as a politician when they grow up. These images and surveys are use to help us understand the learning process of children about politics and gender roles.

A third-grade boy created an image of Donald Trump. He wrote, He is giving a speech stating that we should imprison Hillry Clinton. We asked him: What are the typical activities of a leader on a daily basis? Go to cort, watch the news. He described the leader as a butthead. A 7-year old girl drawn the mayor. Talk talk talk isn’t doing anything else.

The World Of A Man

Elementary-aged children learn to recognize the differences between men and women as they observe their behavior in society. They also understand that different genders often hold certain roles in society such as firefighters or teachers.

This is also a time when children learn about politics. Lessons often focus on important events and leaders from U.S. History which almost exclusively focus on men but are also taught to them. This is because both learning about gender and about politics occur simultaneously, which helps children to understand that men dominate the political world.

Our research has shown that girls see political leadership more as a man’s world with age. We can show this by looking at drawings made by children of how they imagine political leaders.

Three quarters of boys can draw a man when they draw political leaders, and this is across all ages. Compared to boys, girls see politicians as men more often in elementary school. Our study shows that less than half of our youngest girls the first and second grades are drawn to women leaders. Only 25% of middle school girls are able to draw women.

Our research also shows that the probability of children Interest drawing a well-known political leader such as Trump or Barack Obama increases with age.